Thursday, August 16, 2012
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B.A PUNJAB UNIVERSITY 2012
ENGLISH (Group II) MARKS: 100
PAPER – A TIME: 3½ HOUR
Important Note: All parts of a question must be attempted together at one place, otherwise you may not get any credit. Over-attempts will not be marked.
All questions carry equal marks.
1. Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following. 7,6½,6½
i. I will drain
Long draughts of quiet
As a purgation.
These lines have been taken from the poem “New Year Resolutions” by “Elizabeth Sewell”.
In this poem the poetess discusses about her plans. She says she is repenting on her past life and determines to change herself in future.
In these lines the poetess is making the planes of the future life and says that she will remain quiet and calm in future. She will not speak anymore in future. She will behave as if she had taken the long draughts of quiet. It will purify her life and she will be more careful in her coming life. Actually the poetess is of the view that she speaks much in her life and she thinks that more speaking is not good and others do not like it to speak more. So she has determined not to speak too much.
ii. Paid by the world, what dost thou owe Me?...
God might question; now instead,
'Tis God shall repay: I am safer so.
These lines have been taken from the poem “Patriot into Traitor” by “Robert Browning”.
In this poem the poet discusses about thoughts of the people who made thought him to be patriot and then they made him as a traitor. He is taken to the shamble.
In these lines the poet describes about the behavior of the people. He says that he did not want to get any reward from those unkind people. He says that God will reward him much than the people will give him so he needs only the reward from God. He says the people have taken him towards shamble but God will award him Paradise. So the poet is satisfied that he has to meet with his God and is happy.
iii. The apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet black bough.
These lines have been taken from the poem Images and Impressions and Metro: Paris written by Ezra Pound.
In this poem the poet describes about the station and people gathering around the station.
In these lines the poet discusses about the gathering people around the railway station. He says that there are faces and faces everywhere on the station. The poet says that when he saw around he felt that children, women and men are there and they look like shadows. They look like splotches of colour. The long, empty cylinder-like station appears to be like a wet black bow and the faces of people look like petals.
iv. We are acquainted with the Wallaby’s. We knew the place quite well before their time. Decent people lived there once.
These lines have been taken from the play “Something to talk about” written by “Eden Phillpotts”.
In this play the writer discusses about the dull situation in a family where a burglar enters and tries to open a safe where the whole of the family takes interest in his work. At last the burglar goes with the hope to enter another rich family for robbing.
In these lines the writer describes the sayings of Bishop. Bishop says that he is familiar with the Wallaby’s. He knows what type of Wallaby’s is. Also Bishop says that they know about the place already and also there live well-mannered people to whom they know in a well way.
v. Some time before you go home you can unleash your views of me. But not now, not till I know you've thought over something I'm going to tell you
Q.2 Attempt any TWO of the following questions.
(Each answer in about 150–200 words)
i. Write a note on Ole Anderson's sickness with life. (The killers)
Ans. Ole Anderson is not a sick person rather he is a tired person. When Nick went to tell him about the killers who wanted to kill him he himself said, “I am through with all that running around.” The Old Anderson was wrestler and daily went to the Henry’s lunch-room. On day particular day he did not go there and the killers arrived there and waited for him. They wanted to kill him without any reason. When Nick went to tell him about his murder plan he told Nick that he would not go out of the room.
He lay on the bed with two pillows but he has no any fear of death. It seems as if he has no any type of enmity with anyone but others have some of the hate due to which he has been attacked many times. He ran against these attacks many times and is tired of it. Now he does not want to hide anywhere. He wanted to face the death with courage. He has sickness with life.
ii. How the murderer in the story is forced to confess his crime? (Tell-Tale Heart)
Ans. The murderer in the story is forced to confess his crime by staying with him much time. The policemen sat in the same room with him where the dead person was hidden. The policemen talked with him about the murder and the shriek but the murderer did not show any type of murder. He told them that nothing happened there. He satisfied the policemen but they stayed there for a long time to investigate the actual fact. While they stayed there the murderer felt that there is sound of the heartbeat of the corpse. He tried to control himself but could not do so. He began to talk with loud voice. The heartbeat was becoming louder and louder. The policemen were unaware of it but the murderer was becoming uneasiness. At last he confessed that he is the killer and he has killed the old man. He even showed the policemen the dead body under the floor. It was his fear that forced him to confess his crime. He could not hide the real facts of the murder.
iii. Simon keeps the willow as a token of Lisby's love which gives him solace and strength before and at the time of death. Discuss (The Little Willow)
Ans. Simon keeps the willow as a token of Lisby’s love and it gives him solace and strength before and at the time of death. He Dr. Captain Oliver had seen Simon dying in the hospital. He told Lisby that Simon loved that girl who gave him the little willow. Now Lisby could not control herself. She burst into tears and cried that she was that girl. It was sad for Lisby that Simon did not avowal of love before her but at the time of death he spoke.
She came to know that Mr. Simon was in love with her and he kept her give present with him. She was also told that Simon kept the little willow with him all the time and it gave him solace and strength. Even at the time of death he had that little willow with him. He loved it much as it was given to him by his lover.
iv. Write a detailed note on the nature of conflict between Philip and James. (The Boy comes Home)
Ans. There was a great conflict between Philip and James. Both have symbolic representation in the play. Philip is the symbol of young generation and the uncle is the symbol of old generation. Philip cannot bear his uncle James and Uncle James cannot bear his nephew Philips. Old uncle has old views and wants to implement these views on others in the home. He wants every person including Philips to follow his orders. He has his old traditional habits. Where Philips has new ideas and modern ways to lead his life. He has come after fighting war. He did not want to follow the old customs and traditions. So there becomes a conflict between them. Both of them want to fulfill their own expectations but each one of them deny to the other. In this way there comes a conflict.
Q.3 Attempt any TWO of the following questions.
(Each answer in about 150–200 words)
i. How specific is the writer about what she expected to see? Does she suggest this expectation without stating them? (The Eclipse)
Ans. In the modern essay “The Eclipse” The Author Virginia Wolf is describing some expectations without stating them. Actually She is not describing about the eclipse rather eclipse is the symbol in this essay. She actually is describing some facts of life. She tells us that life in this world is temporary and will be lost in the end. She gave a symbol of sun as a symbol of life. When there is sun there is life and when there is no sun there is no life. Death prevails everywhere. There is an unnecessary fear in the people. They are afraid of eclipse but when eclipse ends the fear also ends. So we can say that the authoress is stating some specific expectations and is also suggesting these expectations without stating them.
ii. How does Gloria Emerson maintain the focus on her feelings throughout the essay? Do these feelings change? (Take the Plunge)
Ans. Gloria Emerson maintains the focus on her feelings throughout the essay. In her essay she has described her feelings of flight. She has totally focused on the feelings and has not described any other example instance that can make the reader out of the way. So it can be said that she knew how to write an essay. She is professional and described her feelings in such a way as if the reader is himself with the writer. She sketched the picture of her plunge. She discusses foretime preparations and then other people reactions on it. Then she described about her travel in the plane. Afterwards she has discussed about the plunge from the plane. She totally keeps her mind on the topic and does not wonder around during the description.
iii. Critically examine Forster's views on tolerance. (Tolerance).
Ans. In this essay the writer gives her view about tolerance in the reconstruction of the world after World War II.
According to the writer, two things are needed for building the European nations. First is the sound state of mind and the second is tolerance.
The writer points out that Second World War has brought great destruction in its wake. The pubic leaders, politicians, economists and traders are putting forward their views to rebuild Europe.
According to the writer, the real solution to the problem is psychological and not political or economic. All planning and policies of reconstruction can only succeed if there is proper state of mind behind it. England can be made beautiful if the people of England build every street and every house of England with devotion and motivation. The second thing for the reconstruction of England is tolerance.
He is of the opinion that we can restore peace and order once again in the world if we practice tolerance with one another. Tolerance is a great virtue that can reconstruct human civilization once again.
According to the writer, people talk much about the reconstruction of their country or nation. They forget that they cannot build their nation unless they have a sound state of mind or right psychology.
In public affairs, nations do not know much about one another. In the rebuilding of civilization, less dramatic and less emotional thing is needed. In his view, it is tolerance.
iv. What are Russell's views about Science and Values? (Science and Values)
Ans. This essay is a part of Russell’s book. “The Impact of Science and Society”. Here he throws light on the relation between science and society. He says that science can be used to know this world as well as to change this world. When science is used to change the world, the result may be good or bad. Value men as some principle or quality that is valuable and desirable in itself. Science is closely related to values in the sense that its use can result in good or bad things, desirable or undesirable things, and happiness of mankind or suffering of mankind. Then Russell suggests how man should use science. If used unwisely, it can intensify Tyranny and war. If used wisely, it can confer two kinds of benefits. It can diminish bad things, and it can increase good things.
Q.4 Attempt any TWO of the following questions.
(Each answer in about 150–200 words)
i. Write a character sketch of the woman depicted in the poem. Is an idealization of some kind necessary for our survival as sane human beings? (Woman’s Work).
Ans. The woman mentioned in this poem is very hard working. She gets up very early in the morning. She prepares breakfast cleans the floor, feeds the children, presses the clothes, and buys foodstuff from the bazaar. She is very patient and never grumbles during her work. She is imaginative also. She has her dreams of an ideal life. She yearns to go outside and enjoy sunshine, rain, winds, dew drops. She thinks of the mountains, the oceans, the trees, the star shine and moon glow. Such idealization is necessary in life. It saves us from the boring effect of our routine life and keeps us sane.
ii. Discuss in detail the use of elements of suspense and irony in The Huntsman. (The Huntsman).
Ans. The poem “The Huntsman” by “Edward Lowbury” is full of suspense and irony. In this poem the poet discusses an example of a huntsman and creates a suspense that goes to the end of the story.
Suspense means a state of uncertain expectation. “Irony” is a situation of which the result is quite contrary to our expectation. In this poem, the poet has made an effective use of the elements of suspense and irony. There is the element of suspense because the poem keeps the interest of the reader up to the very last. We do not know what will happen next. There is also the element of irony because the huntsman expected a prize but instead he is killed.
The reader of the poem remains in suspense till the last of the poem and remains curious to know what happens the next. But at that time when he finds that the men of the king killed the huntsman then he becomes very sad and feels sorry for him. This is a great irony that the reader finds.
iii. Write down a critical appreciation of the sonnet, "When I Have Fears".
Ans. The poet of this poem named John Keats died at the very young age. The theme of the poem is the fear of early death. This poem is autobiographical. The poet was suffering from T.B. He knew that his death was near. The theme of this sonnet is fear of death. He fears that he may die young before writing all his poetry, before giving shape to his ideas. Death will deprive him of the beauty of Nature and the beauty of his beloved. Then he expresses his indifference to love and fame. On the whole the poem is very beautiful. We share the feelings of the poet.
iv. Make a comparison between Tartary and Kubla Khan.
Ans. Both the poems “Tartary and Kubla Khan are imaginative poems. In both of the poems the poets have wished some of the unnaturally things. The Wishes that could not be fulfilled are made by the poets in these poems.
In the poem Tartary the poet Walter De La Mare is describing about the land somewhere in the east. The poet wishes to go to this land and be its ruler. Then he thinks of what he will have there. He says by being the lord of Tartary, he would enjoy sleep on beds made of ivory. He would sit on a throne made of gold.
The poem Kubla Khan by Coleridge is the best poem of the poet. Though it is a fragment, it is the most satisfying poem of Coleridge. It does not contain any profound idea; its beauty lies in its atmosphere. In this poem the poet relates that Kubla Khan, the first Mongol Emperor of China, ordered a magnificent pleasure house to be built a Xandau. It was to be built near the scared river Aleph. The area of ten miles of fertile ground was enclosed with wall and towers. The river ran into a lifeless ocean amidst wild noise. Kubla Khan heard voices of his dead ancestors telling him that war was near. The palace he built was a strong one. It was a miracle of care device.
Therefore it can be said here that comparatively both the poems are imaginary. In these poems the poets have seen about the dreams of which could not be fulfilled easily. Both the poems have described some of the fairy atmosphere. The reader sees that in both the poems the unnecessary wishes have been shown and are not to be fulfilled in the real world.
The Old Man and the Sea by Hemingway
Q.5 Attempt any TWO of the following questions.
(Each answer in about 150–200 words)
i. The Old man fights against the Marlin to the very end without being despaired. Discuss.
Ans. Santiago was an old fisherman. Once for 84 days, he could catch no fish. On the 85th day, he went far out into the sea. At noon he was able to hook a big Marlin. After a struggle of 48 hours, he was able to kill the fish. He was able to defeat the fish in three stages.
At the first stage, he saw the stick dip sharply. He at once learnt that a big fish was eating the bait. Then he felt a hard pull. The big fish swam off with the bait in its mouth. Santiago learnt against this pull and weight of the fish. Four hours passed but the fish was swimming steadily towards the North-East. The old man solidly braced with the line across his back. At sunset time it was still the same. He softly said, aloud, “Fish, I’ll stay with you until I am dead”.
At the second stage, near the noon of the second day, the line rose slowly and steadily. Then ahead of the boat, the fish came up. The old man saw that the marlin was two feet longer than the skiff. But he was not afraid. He cried aloud: “But I will kill you before this day ends”.
At the third stage, on the morning of the third day, the Marlin rose again. Now it was tired and weak. It was tired and weak. It began to circle the boat. The old man tried to pull the fish close enough for harpooning, but in vain. His hands were pulped and he was nearly blind with fatigue. Yet he decided to make a final attempt on the ninth circle. He forgot his pain, gathered his strength and put it against the power of the fish. The fish came over on to his side and swam gently. Its bill was almost touching the planks of the skiff.
The old man lifted the harpoon as high as he could and drove it down with all his strength into the fish’s side. The fish rose high out of water. Then it fell into the water with a crash. The old man saw the fish on its back with its silver belly up. He had killed the fish. The first forty-eight hours of struggle were over.
ii. Discuss the ending of the novel.
Ans. This novel has a tragic ending. Some of the critics and readers have objected to this end of the novel. According to them, the story takes us nowhere. In the first part of the story, the old man struggles against the big fish and gains it. In the last part of the story, the old man fights against the sharks and loses the big fish. So this story of great gain and great loss is esthetically satisfying.
The writer has a purpose in writing this story. He is not concerned mainly with the good or bad end. He wants to show that life is a contest, a battle that requires skill and courage. The value of a life does not depend on success on failure. Greatness lies in continuous struggle and indomitable will. The old man loses the battle he has won. But he does not lose heart. He says: “Man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but cannot be defeated.” Without the present end of the story, the writer could not have explained his point.
iii. Narrate the hand game competition between the Old Man and the Negro.
Ans. The old man remembered the time in the public house of Casablanca where he had played the hand game with the great Negro from Cienfuegos. He was the strongest man on the ducks. The trial of strength between the Negro and Santiago lasted one day and one night. There was a table in the house. A chalk line was drawn on it. They raised their arms straight up and gripped each other’s hand tightly. Each one was trying down the hand of the other on the table. There were many spectators. The room was lighted. The spectators betted. They went in and out of the room. Santiago looked at the arms and the hands of the Negro and at his face.
Both the contestants were strong. They exerted all their strength. The result was that blood came out from under the fingernails of both. They looked each other in the eye and at their hands.
The chances in favour or against would change back and forth all night. Peoples served the Negro rum and lighted a cigarette for him. After drinking rum, the Negro put in added strength. There was a time when Santiago was near to defeat but the old man raised his hand again. The old man released all his strength and forced the hand of the Negro down. Now Santiago was the champion. There was a return match, but the Negro has been sufficiently demoralised.
iv. What were Santiago's views about his failure?
Ans. The old man keeps up his spirits when the hunted fish is attacked by the sharks. He fights with the sharks and kills them with his knife, harpoon and later on with his club. But he couldn’t beat the sharks during the way to the coast due to his loneliness “I wish I had the boy. To help me and see this.” The sharks take away the best part of the hunted fish but he is not disappointed. He encourages himself saying, “Do not think old man. Sail on this course and take it when it comes”. In the end, he sleeps peacefully and dreams of lions. He asks the boy to prepare his fishing gear as he wants to go on another expedition this time with him. All this shows that the old man sustains his hope and optimism till the end of the novel.
This post was written by: Franklin Manuel
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